The article discusses the history of the Soviet Union uranium-graphite trends in nuclear reactors, and changing the parameters of nuclear safety of these reactors. The emphasis in the hearing on the assessment of important nuclear safety parameters of the different generations of uranium-graphite reactors, starting with the Ф-1 reactor, hereinafter - Industrial uranium-graphite reactors (PUGR), and ending with high power channel reactors (RBMK - Light Water Cooled Graphite Moderated Reactor). For each type uranium-graphite reactors studied dependence of the effective multiplication factor of the fuel lattice pitch and the amount of water coolant in the fuel channels. In a simple model of the RBMK reactor core is shown unacceptably large reactivity effect of hardening in drying or fuel channels. A determination of the number of local critical mass in the uranium-graphite reactors and their impact on the operation of the reactor at low power levels when the mutual influence of the local critical mass (volume) is small, and this leads to the emergence in the core areas of local criticality. It is considered an error and the project for the construction of the RBMK graphite displacer, which is an important factor in the development of emergency April 26 1986 of the Chernobyl.
Keywords: nuclear safety, Industrial Uranium-Graphite Reactor, Light Water Cooled Graphite Moderated Reactor, reactivity effects, SCRAM.
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