In this work we presented model setup and results of calculations of yearly average concentrations of radioactive aerosols at the Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant in Ukraine (PChP). For calculation of atmospheric transfer we used diagnostic meteorological model CALMET and model of atmospheric transfer CALPUFF. The simulation of air pollution by radioactive aerosols was carried out by using empirical formulas for PM10 resuspension rates depending on wind velocity and surface properties. The emission of radioactivity was estimated using PM10 emission rate multiplied on soil contamination of the corresponding territory which was estimated from measurements. Territories of tailings and surrounding areas were subdivided onto elementary subsources and for each elementary subsource time dependent resuspension rate was calculated. From the presented comparisons of calculated results with measurements it could be concluded that concentration of Ra-226 and U-238 is well reproduced in simulations at the territory of Suhachivske tailing. Calculated concentrations at Base-C tailing are somewhat overestimated. At the territories of West, South-East and Central Yarr tailings simulated results agree with observations for both Ra-226 and U-238. Results of calculations are suitable for an assessment of risks of the population. The presented results confirm that the developed methodology could be adapted and used for estimation of the influence of contaminated territories on air pollution due to resuspension in the vicinity to objects of similar to Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant.
Keywords: atmospheric transfer, dust, aerosol, radionuclides, CALPUFF.
1. Voitsekhovich O.V., Lavrova T.V. Remediation Planning of Uranium Mining and Milling Facilities: The Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant Complex in Ukraine // Remediation of Contaminated Environments – 2009 - P. 343–356.
2. Report about rendering services for an assessment of radiation and ecological safety of the territory of an industrial site and tailings, as bases of justification and prioritization of rehabilitation actions / TOV «Tsentr monіtoringovikh doslіdzhen' і prirodookhoronnikh tekhnologіi. – Kyiv, 2009. – 166 p. (Ukr)
3. Scire J. S., Strimaitis D. G., Yamartino R. J. A User’s Guide for the CALPUFF Dispersion Model (Version 5) [Electronic resource] / Concord, USA: Earth Tech. Inc., 2000. – 521p. - Access mode: (http://www.src.com/ calpuff/calpuff1.htm).
4. Garger E.K. Reentrainment of radioactive aerosol in the surface layer of the atmosphere: monograph. – Chernobyl: Institute for safety problems of nuclear power plants NAs of Ukraine. – 2008. – 192 p. (Rus)
5. Methodology for estimating fugitive windblown and mechanically resuspended road dust emissions applicable for regional scale air quality modeling [Electronic resource] / Westlake Village, CA: Countess Environmental. – 2001. – 103 p. – Access mode: (http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1321/ML13213A294.pdf).
6. Bagnold R.A. The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes / Methuen; New York. –1954. – 265 p.
7. Encyclopedia of public health "Total Suspended Particles (TSP)” 2002 [Electronic resource]. – Access mode: (http://www.encyclopedia.com).
8. Loosmore G. A., Hunt J.R. Dust resuspension without saltation // Journal of geophysical research. – 2000. – Vol. 105, No. D16. – P. 20663–20672.
9. Ghorbel M., Munoz M., Solmon F. Health hazard prospecting by modeling wind transfer of metal-bearing dust from mining waste dumps: application to Jebel Ressas Pb–Zn–Cd abandoned mining site (Tunisia) // Environ Geochem Health. – 2014. – Vol. 36, No. 5. - P. 935–951.
10. Ishizuka, M., Mikami M., Tanaka T. et al. Use of a size-resolved 1-D resuspension scheme to evaluate resuspended radioactive material associated with mineral dust particles from the ground surface // Journal of Environmental Radioactivity – 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.12.023.
11. Rainer Stern. Das chemische Transportmodell REM-CALGRID Modellbeschreibung [Electronic resource]. – 2009. – Access mode: (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/ag/trumf/Ausbreitungsmodelle/RCG-Beschreibung.pdf). (Ger)
12. Methodology to Estimate the Transportable Fraction (TF) of Fugitive Dust Emissions for Regional and Urban Scale Air Quality Analyses [Electronic resource] / US EPA (8/3/2005 Revision) -12 p. - Access mode: (http://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1321/ML13213A386.pdf).
13. Kovalets I.V., Zheleznyak M.I, Khalchenkov A.V. et al. Numerical modelling of Radon atmospheric dispersion around uranium mill tailings // Elektronnoe modelirovanie. – 2010. - Vol. 32, № 3. - P. 67–82. (Rus)
14. Review and evaluation of area source dispersion algorithms for emission sources at superfund sites / US Environmental Protection Agency. - № EPA 450/4 -89-020. – North Carolina: EPA Office of Air and Radiation. – 1989. – 137 p.
15. AP-42, Section 13.2.5, Industrial Wind Erosion / United States Environmental Protection Agency [Electronic resource]. – 2006. – Access mode: (http://www3.epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch13/final/c13s0205.pdf).
16. NRBU-97, State Hygienic, Radiation Safety Standards of Ukraine / Radiation Safety Standards of Ukraine. – Kyiv: Ministry of Healthe of Ukraine. – 1997. – 127 p. (Ukr)