Search - Issue 31 - THE RATE OF DRY DEPOSITION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF CHERNOBYL ORIGIN ACCORDING TO OBSERVATIONS

THE RATE OF DRY DEPOSITION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF CHERNOBYL ORIGIN ACCORDING TO OBSERVATIONS
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31717/1813-3584.18.31.10
Cover not present THE RATE OF DRY DEPOSITION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF CHERNOBYL ORIGIN ACCORDING TO OBSERVATIONS
Category: Issue 31
Publication: 31
Summary

In this review, it briefly examine data from field experimental measurements of of dry deposition velocity d v , assessments of observations d v in during the Chernobyl accident at various distances from the Chernobyl nuclear power station, methods for predicting the forming of gamma contamination fields in meso and regional scales using different values d v , recommendations for values of the dry deposition velocity for the calculation of deposition radioactive aerosols. According to experimental measurements carried out in field diffusion experiments, it has been shown that the range of variation of the dry deposition velocity of aerosol particles was more than three orders of magnitude. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was characterized by the release of radioactive substances consisting of particles of dispersed fuel, inert gases, and volatile nuclides of iodine, cesium, tellurium. The peculiarity of this accident was the emission of a wide range of particles in size with different physicochemical properties that polluted huge territories for a long period of time under different weather conditions, which made it extremely difficult to obtain estimates d v especially in the near heavily polluted zone in the acute phase of the accident. From the analysis it follows that the uncertainty of estimates of the values of the dry deposition velocity is large and largely depends on the consideration of the nature of the accidental emissions, the removal of observation points from the source of emissions, nonstationarity of meteorological and landscape-geochemical conditions. Therefore that for prompt calculations of the radiation situation in the event of accidents and for preventive assessments of radiation contamination within the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), it is necessary to create a calculation methodology that takes into account the determining processes of radioactivity formation in a wide range of aerosol particles in size, meteorological and landscape-geochemical conditions, taking into account the nature of accidental emissions (type, height and duration).

Keywords: radioactive aerosol, range of aerosol particles in size, deposition rate.

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